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Nutrition for Active and Healthy Aging

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Banning junk food in hospitals

Posted by ProPortion Foods Blog on Aug 29, 2018 in Nutrition, Obesity

Although health is core business for hospitals, junk food and soft drinks have long dominated kiosks and vending machines that line hospital foyers and corridors.

 

But now Queensland is leading the way with a long overdue move to ban these items, which are driving contributors to obesity, poor health and chronic disease.

 

The ban is motivated by a call to reduce junk food advertising and availability to children. But other hospital goers will also benefit from moves to promote healthy food.

 

Obesity is a growing problem in older adults as well as children, and poor lifestyle choices promote higher risk of chronic diseases including Alzheimer’s.

 

 

Changing food environments

 

Making these changes is not easy. The food and drink industry, which has long enjoyed binding contracts with hospitals, has complained that it was not consulted in the decision.

 

Australian Beverages Council spokesperson, Geoff Parker, called the move “an insult to people’s intelligence,” arguing that “People don’t want governments snooping around in vending machines or hospital cafeterias.”

 

But the world’s leading obesity researchers say making unhealthy foods less available is needed to address the global health crisis. The ubiquity of food that is energy dense and nutritionally poor is a clear contributor to its overconsumption.

 

The executive summary of The Lancet’s 2015 obesity series argues that “Today’s food environments exploit people’s biological, psychological, social, and economic vulnerabilities, making it easier for them to eat unhealthy foods.

 

“This reinforces preferences and demands for foods of poor nutritional quality, furthering the unhealthy food environments.

 

“Regulatory actions from governments and increased efforts from industry and civil society will be necessary to break these vicious cycles.”

 

Targeting individual behaviours does not work, the researchers contend. They say a broad environmental focus on ‘denormalising’ unhealthy food consumption is needed – much like campaigns to reduce smoking.

 

That means changing social norms by creating an environment in which consuming unhealthy food and drinks becomes less attractive, less conventional and less accessible.

 

 

Does it work?

 

When trialled, healthier vending machine food and drink options have produced successful outcomes in schools, workplaces, hospitals and health services.

 

Evaluations of these initiatives not only reported that people bought healthier food items, but also that sales increased.

 

Behavioural economics tells us that people don’t necessarily make decisions based on careful weighing of risks and benefits. Behaviours are influenced by emotions, identity and environment – including the options available to us.

 

Based on this, contemporary research is considering how to ‘nudge’ people towards healthier behaviours and improve population health. When it comes to food, a grouped analysis of 42 trials in developed countries found that, on average, nudging strategies produced a 15.3% increase in healthier choices.

 

Healthier options in hospital vending machines and kiosks may not benefit the processed food and sugary drink industry, but people’s health and wellbeing could surely profit.

 

 

References

 

https://www.news.com.au/national/breaking-news/qld-leads-charge-on-junk-food-crackdown/news-story/e7020163b0c01c1a1a476f43e1a13d45

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-08-03/queensland-hospitals-to-ban-junk-food-and-sugary-drinks/10067928

https://www.thelancet.com/series/obesity-2015

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1446491/

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Branko_Cvjetan/publication/42833997_Healthier_vending_machines_in_workplaces_Both_possible_and_effective/links/55fe27fb08aeba1d9f6b4644/Healthier-vending-machines-in-workplaces-Both-possible-and-effective.pdf

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17341222

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4967524/

Obesity growing in older adults

Posted by ProPortion Foods Blog on May 7, 2018 in Obesity

 

Sparse but increasing evidence points to a delicate balance between weight loss and weight gain in aging. While malnutrition afflicts a considerable segment of our aging population, the obesity epidemic has also hit Australia’s growing older cohort.

 

And the health effects are just as damaging. Overweight and obesity amplify risk of chronic diseases like heart disease, diabetes, cancer and even dementia. They increase declining health in aging and can trigger physical and cognitive disability, boosting hospital admissions, health care costs and mortality.

 

“Sarcopenic obesity” is a new term to describe age-related loss of muscle mass combined with increased body fat. Evidence suggests it may even have worse consequences for disability than sarcopenia without obesity.

 

Health professionals are wary of prescribing weight loss in older adults for fear of impacting muscles, bones and nutrition status. But evidence suggests that shedding excess weight at an older age, as in younger years, can improve physical function and reduce chronic diseases.

 

 

What causes obesity in older adults?

 

Excess calories and scant physical activity are primary risk factors for obesity at any age. These have also contributed to swelling obesity in advanced years.

 

“In an affluent country such as Australia,” the National Health and Medical Research Council says, “food is plentiful, easily accessible, often energy dense and heavily promoted, and daily tasks and recreation depend less and less on physical activity.”

 

Increased love of eating out, computer use, television viewing, labour saving technologies, restricted time, fear of crime, and greater use of cars are likely contributors.

 

Compounding these factors, age-related declines in hormone production can increase fat accumulation. Aging also reduces muscle mass. It compresses spines and makes people shorter. All this can unfavourably tilt the fat:muscle ratio, so simply stepping on the scales may not reveal increased fat.

 

 

Recommendations

 

Less than half of health professionals advise weight loss in overweight or obese older adults. Yet such advice is a good predictor of efforts to shed weight. In support, governing health bodies now advocate treating obesity in older adults.

 

In so doing, priority must be given to preservation of muscle mass, bone density and nutrient levels. Individualised care is critical to address any related conditions. The suggested target is a gradual 5% to 10% weight reduction over 6 months, followed by weight maintenance.

 

A nutritious, well balanced diet is always optimal for healthy weight and healthy body. Plenty of plant foods provide nutrients that support good health and can be eaten in bulk without consulting the calorie counter. Round this out with oily fish like salmon, tuna and mackerel, dairy products, whole grains and healthy fats. Bin highly processed foods and refined carbohydrates.

 

The golden years demand special attention to consuming adequate protein (1.0-1.2 grams per kg per day) to help maintain muscle mass and bone health. Vitamin D and vitamin B12, notoriously compromised with age, are recommended as supplements. Fibre—from plant foods—and plenty of fluids will help keep things purring along.

 

Regular exercise is the crowning jewel—it burns energy to help shed kilos, maintains healthy muscle mass and bone density, supports a healthy immunity, reduces chronic physical illness, and helps keep the brain sharp.

 

Minimum physical activity recommendations are individually, professionally tailored aerobic exercise (increasing heart rate and breathing) 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week, and strengthening exercises at least three days a week.

 

 

References

 

https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/0eaaae57-c3c6-4782-b3cc-4ec0ad8645a9/bulletin12.pdf.aspx?inline=true

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000282230901431X

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4510467/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3278274/

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210833514000070