Modern times have seen a resurgence in paleolithic diets – for better or worse – as people turn to hunter gatherers for lessons on lifestyle and health.
But we haven’t embraced paleo levels of exercise – and researchers suggest we should pay considerably more attention to our ancestors’ physical activity habits.
Historical records estimate that hunter gatherers, whose survival and transport relied on doing everything manually, accrued more than double, and even triple, the number of daily steps of modern US adults.
In fact, most urban people are less active now than ever before in history.
Whether stone age people were healthier remains debatable because they tended to die young. But they were more likely to be killed by wild beasts and falling rocks than the chronic metabolic diseases that plague modern humans.
Non-communicable diseases are the modern world’s biggest health problem, responsible for substantial limitations in daily activities and 70 percent of all deaths in the US.
Advances in technology have resulted in less physically active lifestyles along with increased sedentary behaviour – and these are not necessarily mirror images of each other.
In other words, many of the ways in which inactivity leads to chronic disease are not the same means by which being active can prevent those diseases – these have different mechanisms of action in the body.
So avoiding sedentary behaviours and engaging in physical activity each have their own distinct benefits.
Broadly, nutrition and exercise physiology expert Frank Booth and colleagues define physical inactivity as “physical activity levels less than those required for optimal health and prevention of premature death”.
Booth and co-authors argue that low activity levels are a primary culprit for most chronic diseases. In fact, they present evidence that being active could prevent at least 35 different conditions ranging from obesity and diabetes to heart disease and depression.
Hippocrates is famously quoted as saying that food is medicine. He also recognised the importance of physical activity.
On the whole, our ancestors’ physical activity levels approximate guidelines set by the World Health Organisation.
For older adults aged 65 and above, WHO recommends at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity throughout the week in bouts of at least 10 minutes – and up to 300 minutes for additional health benefits.
There is a lot of confusion about the paleo diet, and experts point out it is not just one diet: they say there are many different variants.
By and large, paleo diet enthusiasts embrace it as an excuse to eat lots of meat. But Dr Kim Lloyd, CEO of the Paleo Society, told NutritionInsight it’s not a meat-based diet.
“True paleo means eating approximately 75 percent plant-based food, non-starchy vegetables, fruit, seeds and tree nuts with the addition of compassionately reared, free range meat, fish and eggs,” she explained.
Many nutrition experts say the diet’s health benefits are attributed to eating fresh foods and avoiding processed meats and other packaged foods. But they caution against omitting whole food groups like dairy, grains and legumes as suggested by many proponents of the diet.
Combined with regular physical activity, this broad dietary approach – a cornerstone of most traditional diets – is surely a wholesome recipe for longevity and good health.
Many older adults don’t eat enough to meet their nutritional needs, and this can impact their healing and recovery from injury.
In support of this, a 2-year pilot study has shown that giving one extra meal a day to older adults who were hospitalised with hip fractures halved their risk of dying.
The study, conducted by the NHS in the UK, was instigated after staff noticed that patients with hip fractures struggled to get enough nutrients. In the program, nutrition advisors across six sites brought food from the hospital’s canteen and sat with patients as they ate their extra meal.
As a result, mortality rates fell from 11 to 5.5 percent, and medical authorities are considering whether it should be introduced countrywide.
Often, busy staff overlook patients’ food intake, noted chief orthopaedic surgeon Dominic Inman. Commenting on the findings to The Telegraph, he said, “If you look upon food as a very, very cheap drug, that’s extremely powerful.”
Hip fractures are the most common, and most serious type of fracture in Australia, with new fractures resulting in 50,900 hospitalisations and 579,000 bed days throughout 2015-16.
The health of adults over 50 often rapidly declines after a hip fracture, exacerbating poor outcomes. For three months after fracturing a hip, older adults are at five to eight times greater risk of dying, and one in three adults over 50 dies within 12 months.
Aside from that, a hip fracture can sorely impact mobility, independence and quality of life, and many patients are transferred to another facility for ongoing care.
Falls can be prevented by maintaining good muscle mass and strength. Failing that, patient outcomes after a fall can be improved with rehabilitation aimed at getting them moving as soon as possible, and with good nutrition.
Malnutrition, although widespread, is often overlooked, so it is important to be aware of the signs.
Addressing this, Queensland researchers have tested a patient-centred food service model in a public hospital setting and showed that it increased patients’ energy and protein intake – key requirements for healing and preventing malnourishment.
The model has been used in private acute care settings for 15 years. It revolves around providing room service to patients on demand – so they get to choose what they eat and when. (Who wants dinner at 5pm if you’re not ready for it?)
This food revolution was led by Sally McCray, who says, “This innovate model demonstrates the importance of patients being able to order flexibly, both in terms of the type of food items that patients feel like eating, as well as ordering food at a time of day that they feel like eating.”
The researchers showed that, not only can it improve nutrition intake, it also results in happier patients and reduced food waste.
Posted by ProPortion Foods Blog on Sep 24, 2018 in Nutrition
Every year, food operators including chefs, restauranteurs, café and bar owners gather to showcase new foods, tools of the trade, and industry insights. This year’s show in Melbourne was the biggest event yet.
Temptations from the recent food fest ranged from chocolate masterpieces by artistic chocolatier Stephane LeRoux and patisserie innovations to premium beer, wine and spirits and Peruvian superfoods like Camu Camu fruit and Sacha Inchi seeds.
We presented a variety of possible ways to serve our portion-controlled cakes, from a tray display to plated up portions with garnishes and accompaniments.
The baked cheesecake was a big hit, with people coming back wanting more. We were delighted with compliments on the expert styling by My, and about how delicious our products are.
“It was great to catch up with our current suppliers and customers who stopped by to visit us at our stand, including interstate visitors,” says Nikki. “It’s always nice to be able to put a face to a name.”
Gluten-free products received less attention than in previous years, perhaps owing to their transition from a healthy living niche to mainstream fare. Their appeal has reached beyond people with allergens or intolerance as gluten-free fare has become part of a healthy lifestyle for many.
Hemp – the nutritious, protein-packed, non-psychoactive version – was one of the new kids on the block. Its nutty tasting seeds featured in many novel hemp-based products, owing to Australian legalisation last year that allowed it in foods.
“This is very exciting as it is a complete protein source with a natural health halo,” says Nikki. She thinks that we can expect to see more hemp protein powders, fortified foods and beverages.
Always fascinated to try new foreign foods and beverages, Nikki tried an animal from our own backyard in Australia: wallaby – grilled and as a “salami”.
“Less gamey than kangaroo, it has a soft texture similar to lamb,” she recalls. “A novelty taste testing, but I don’t think I’ll be eating it again.”
Jane is 52 years old. She suffers chronic neck pain and impaired mobility, resulting from an occupational violence attack. But she needs to continue her activities in the domestic domain and understands the importance of staying active despite the pain.
This is not easy. Although Jane’s house was designed for her ageing parents, the surrounding footpaths are dangerous, and she has already tripped a couple of times. Jane is also a quiet person who enjoys intimate social interactions in the comfort of her own home.
John is a socially and mentally active 44-year old who admits to mildly excessive alcohol consumption and periods of depression. He stays physically active to keep fit and get around.
With an aversion to driving, cycling is his preferred mode of transport. He hopes his physical health will allow him to continue. John lives close to a natural enjoyment which facilitates outdoor physical activities.
As Jane and John age, mobility will become an increasingly important theme in their lives. Their independence will count on it.
A comprehensive survey of long-term studies covering 12.6 million older adults found that mobility improved quality of life and body function capacity and reduced medical expenditure.
Grocery shopping, housework, gardening, visiting friends and family, personal hygiene, going to appointments are things we take for granted. But impaired mobility and chronic conditions in aging can have a significant impact on these daily activities.
“Life space”, the space within which people move in their daily lives, impacts mobility – people who have restricted life space tend to be less mobile.
Walking is an activity that can easily be included in a daily routine as a form of transport to increase life space, thereby enhancing mobility and health.
John and Jane both identify Tai Chi as an activity that they could enjoy in 25 years. It is low impact, and as a bonus includes meditation and breathing for mental relaxation.
Global public health policies increasingly target healthy aging. To this end, a lifestyle index was developed to identify key factors related to aging well.
Core components of the index are vigorous and moderate physical activity, consuming fruit and vegetables, regular meals, plenty of fluids, and psychosocial factors – social engagement, networking and life satisfaction.
There is an interactive element to these. For instance, eating well reduces risk of overweight and chronic disease, both of which restrict mobility. Being socially active, like John, will enhance opportunities to be active.
In turn, higher mobility will enable greater engagement in social networks and activities.
Active aging policies could support people like Jane to be mobile by improving sidewalks and providing walking trails.
More broadly, policies across multiple sectors will empower older adults to remain independent, active community members – characteristic of a healthy, humane society.