Posted by ProPortion Foods Blog on Dec 7, 2018 in Cognition
New research adds to growing evidence that dementia can be prevented or delayed with modifiable lifestyle factors.
Researchers followed up more than 300 older adults in Pittsburgh, USA, for 15 years and found that the stiffness or hardening of their arteries was a strong predictor of their dementia risk.
These major blood vessels deliver oxygen and nutrients to all body organs including the brain. Arterial stiffness occurs when the vessel walls become inflamed and thick with plaque, and the heart has to work harder to pump blood through the body.
Age, hypertension, and diabetes are all risk factors for heart disease. They also increase the stiffness of arteries and have been linked to higher dementia risk.
Previous research has linked stiffer arteries to lower memory and concentration with aging. This study found that arterial stiffness was also an independent predictor of dementia.
Researchers assessed arterial stiffness using pulse wave velocity (PWV) – a measure of how long it takes for blood to be pumped through the arteries. They also took MRI scans of participants’ brains to test for signs of subclinical brain disease.
People with high PWV – hence stiffer arteries – were 60 percent more likely to develop dementia over the 15-year follow-up than those with low PWV. And although arterial stiffness is associated with risk of brain disease, controlling for that did not alter the risk.
First author Chendi Cui said, “It’s very surprising that adjusting for subclinical brain disease markers didn’t reduce the association between arterial stiffness and dementia at all.”
That’s good news, she added, because evidence suggests it’s easier to prevent arteries from becoming stiff than it is to prevent subclinical brain disease.
Arterial stiffness and other heart disease risk factors can be reduced with lifestyle habits like healthy diet, regular mobility, good quality sleep and not smoking – important for healthy aging altogether.
Addressing these well into advanced age could still have a significant impact. The long-term study above found that people who exercised at an average age of 73 had lower arterial stiffness five years later.
Even people in aged care with dementia have shown surprising benefits from individually tailored exercises.
The health benefits of a Mediterranean-style diet are also well established – including its link with healthy cognitive aging and reduced dementia risk.
The traditional diet is high in nutritious plant foods – vegetables, legumes, fruit, nuts, seeds and wholegrains – rich in extra virgin olive oil as the main culinary fat for cooking and salads, regular consumption of fish and moderate intake of fermented dairy products and red wine.
The diet is low in red and processed meats, confectionary and sugar.
It’s not only healthy; another bonus is that the recipes are yummy, cheap and simple to make, and can be made in bulk for leftovers or frozen for emergencies. What’s not to love?
People have long thought that dementia is unavoidable if you carry risky genes. Now research is slowly but surely debunking this fateful thinking as mounting evidence suggests lifestyle changes could help people retain control over their mental faculties.
In fact, a recent study collated the latest research and found that controllable factors could account for around 35% of the dementia burden – larger than that attributed to the genes typically linked with Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of dementia.
Signposts have long pointed the way – physical conditions like hypertension, inflammation and heart disease confer greater risk of dementia. So it’s really a no-brainer that the benefits of looking after our physical wellbeing extend to better mental health.
In 2013, Spanish researchers allocated 522 people aged 55-80 at high risk for heart disease to a Mediterranean diet or low-fat diet. More than six years later, those in the Mediterranean diet group had less heart disease and scored higher on cognitive tests used for dementia.
Indeed, research has found that people who follow a Mediterranean diet have less brain atrophy and amyloid-ß that is typical of Alzheimer’s. “If you follow a Western diet, your brain ages faster. A Mediterranean diet is protective,” says neuroscientist Lisa Mosconi.
The traditional Mediterranean diet is high in plant foods: vegetables, fruit, legumes, nuts, seeds and wholegrains, and extra virgin olive oil for cooking and salads. It also features moderate consumption of fish, fermented dairy (cheese, yoghurt) and red wine with meals, and very little processed food or meat.
Physical activity has numerous health benefits, from reducing risk of heart disease and diabetes to some cancers. A grouped analysis of 15 studies in 2010 found that across the board, exercise can also protect against cognitive decline.
Other studies have shown that physical activity can enhance blood flow to the brain and increase levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor – a protective protein.
Even if you don’t fancy donning gym gear and sweating it out with aerobics classes and barbells, just taking opportunities each day to walk, move and be active will reap physical and mental rewards.
Keeping the brain active also confers striking protection against Alzheimer’s disease. Staying educated encourages new neural connections that might compensate for cognitive decline with aging. “It future-proofs your brain,” according to researcher Leon Flicker.
Even people who don’t pursue ongoing education can boost their cognitive reserves in other ways, like reading, doing puzzles or attending quiz nights. Quiz nights may have additional benefits – having a strong social network can also keep the brain healthy. Even being married reduces dementia risk dramatically.
In 2017, researchers pooled data from 27 studies on sleep. They found that sleep problems increase risk of cognitive impairment by 65% and could account for up to 15% of Alzheimer’s diagnoses.
Other protective factors include not smoking and maintaining a healthy weight and blood pressure.
Even if you have a genetic predisposition for Alzheimer’s disease, “there are still things you can do,” says Finnish geriatric epidemiologist Tiia Ngandu.
Richard Isaacson has set up a clinic for preventing Alzheimer’s in the US. The clinic offers individualised prevention strategies for people at risk for dementia.
Based on data they have collected, he estimates that 60% of lifestyle recommendations will apply to most people. Beyond that, strategies may vary from person to person, including, for instance, specific treatments for heart conditions or sleep problems.
Researchers are now optimistic that people can prevent their risk of dementia, and current large studies are underway to strengthen the evidence base.
Some decline in cognitive faculties is inevitable in the twilight years. But several lifestyle factors can help mitigate waning acuity and increasing forgetfulness. One of those could be a pine bark extract that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Fading mental functions and thought processes that occur with aging impact attention, speed of processing information, memory and other aspects of intelligence. The reasons for this are not fully understood. But the accelerated oxidative stress that occurs in aging could be a factor.
A recent study, published by researchers at the Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, found that F2-Isoprostanes – a marker of oxidative stress – were associated with impaired ability to verbally retrieve episodic memories in healthy older adults.
Chronic inflammation could also contribute – it has been linked to several chronic conditions including heart disease, depression and dementia, and might help explain the high overlap between these diseases.
A 2017 study investigated blood markers of inflammation in 1,633 adults aged 53 on average. At a follow-up 24 years later, higher levels of inflammation were associated with poorer episodic memory and reduced volume of the hippocampus – a brain region associated with memory – and other areas of the brain associated with Alzheimer’s disease.
A body of research has investigated health benefits of Pycnogenol, the registered trademark name for a product derived from the bark of a pine tree (Pinus pinaster). The active ingredient is also contained in peanut skin, grape seed, and witch hazel bark.
Pycnogenol contains several polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Some evidence suggests it could reduce symptoms of allergy and asthma and improve circulation and symptoms of ADHD in children.
It may alleviate problems associated with clogged arteries, deep vein thrombosis, high blood sugar, circulation problems in diabetes, blood pressure, menopause and other physical ailments, but more evidence is needed.
Some research has shown that taking Pycnogenol could improve mental function and memory in adults both young and old.
A study published last month builds on this evidence in 55 to 70-year-old healthy adults with signs of mild cognitive impairment – a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease.
All participants continued their standard care, including healthy sleep patterns, regular exercise, and low sodium and sugar meals. Additionally, half of them were given 150mg Pycnogenol per day for two months.
The treatment group’s Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores increased significantly by 4 points on average compared to about half a point in controls. The median increase was 18% in the Pycnogenol group and 2.48% in the control group.
Several other tests of cognitive function and memory improved by 19.4% to 39.4% in the treatment group compared to 0% to 12.5% in controls. The treatment group also showed a 16 percent reduction in oxidative stress.
This month saw the launch of the Healthy Ageing APAC Summit in Singapore on 12-13 June, covering a smorgasbord of topics related to nutrition and healthy ageing throughout the Asia-Pacific region.
Currently more than half of the world’s over-60s live in the Asia-Pacific. And the region’s number of older adults is expected to double from 547 million in 2016 to nearly 1.3 billion by 2050.
The summit was launched to explore how the nutrition and food industry “can meet the needs of the rapidly ageing populations of today, and more crucially, tomorrow.”
Nikki attended the summit. “There was just so much information and networking, it really was a fabulous couple of days! I’m very lucky to have been able to attend and learn a lot.” Here are some highlights.
Presenter Chin Juen Seow from Euromonitor pointed out that healthy living has become a major trend – and not just in ageing.
He suggests this is driven by an array of social and cultural influences spanning economics, population change, technological advancement, concerns about the environment and sustainability, and changing values: “Health is the new wealth.”
As a result, 37 percent of packaged food sales in Asia are presented with a health focus, and this is predicted to increase.
Dr Lesley Braun from Blackmores presented new research suggesting that omega-3s may benefit sarcopenia. Bolstered by animal studies that show increased stimulation of muscle protein synthesis, human trials provide some evidence of improved muscle-related biomarkers in older adults after taking omega-3 supplements.
Dementia is now the second highest cause of Australian deaths. It is risky and expensive for pharmaceutical companies to develop drugs for Alzheimer’s disease – the most common form of dementia – according to Dr Shawn Watson from Senescence Life Science, with a 99.6% failure rate of clinical trials. Their focus on amyloids could be the limiting factor.
Increasing research shows that nutrition and sleep can support healthy brain function with ageing, preventing risk of Alzheimer’s via several biological mechanisms including reduced inflammation and oxidative stress. Watson reported positive results from supplementation with turmeric and ginseng.
Alzheimer’s disease has also been nicknamed “diabetes type 3.” When people eat too much sugar, cells are bombarded with insulin, which tells them to take in the glucose for energy. Over time the cells become insulin resistant, leading to diabetes and a host of related health problems. Research has linked a lack of insulin to the formation of plaques associated with Alzheimer’s – one more reason to avoid excess sugar and refined carbohydrates.
Accordingly, the glycemic index (GI) was developed to rank foods by how quickly sugar is released into the blood stream. Kathy Usic from the Glycaemic Index Foundation told the audience about an impending global roll-out of the Low GI Symbol on food packaging to help address the soaring epidemic of chronic disease.
Amidst a wave of related research on low carbohydrate/high protein diets, a study is currently underway to investigate the effects of a low-GI high-protein diet on pre-diabetes/type 2 diabetes prevention. Watch this space!